Diamond is the hardest natural substance known in this planet. It is located in some igneous rocks known as kimberlites. Diamond itself is essentially a chain of carbon atoms, which crystallize. Unique hardness of stone is the result of a densely focused nature of the carbon chains. As in other volcanic rocks, kimberlite was formed over thousands of years of volcanic activity that took place during the formation of the Earth’s crust.
Kimberlites located within these areas of former volcanic activity often near the mountain ranges-in vertical shafts that extend deep into the earth. However, not all kimberlite contains diamonds. Other stones are often found in diamonds are mica, garnet and zircon. Kimberlite may be blue-gray tint, or when exposed to air it may have a yellowish tint and is called yellow ground.
Diamonds are measured in carats, the standard unit for measuring gemstones. One carat is equal to about one-fifth of a gram. The carat may be divided into sections based on the scale of 100. One reason so diamonds are valued because the light that they absorb reflected directly back outward, if a stone has been properly cut.
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