University PNG Transparent Images

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Submitted by on Oct 11, 2020

A university (Latin: Universitas, “a whole”) is a higher education and research institution that awards degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities usually provide undergraduate and postgraduate education.

The word “university” comes from the Latin word “Universitas magistrorum et scholarium”, which roughly means “community of teachers and scholars.” The modern university system has its roots in the medieval European university, which was founded in Italy and developed from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages. The original Latin word Universitas usually refers to “the number of persons bound into one body, society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc.” During the rise of urban city life and medieval guilds, specialized ‘associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights, usually guaranteed by letters issued by princes, prelates or the cities in which they were located,’ were named. Like other guilds, they self-regulate and determine the qualifications of their members.

In modern usage, the word means “An institution of higher education offering tuition in mainly non-vocational subjects and typically having the power to confer degrees,” with the earlier emphasis on the corporate organization being considered a historical application for medieval universities.

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The original Latin word refers to educational institutions that award degrees in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organization is prevalent and from where the institution spreads throughout the world.

An important idea in defining a university is the concept of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this is associated with the beginning of the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted in 1158 or 1155 the academic charter “The Constitution of the Environment”, which guarantees the right of the traveling scholars to move freely in the interests of education. Today it is considered the source of “academic freedom”. This is now widely recognized worldwide – on September 18, 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum to commemorate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Bologna. The number of universities that have signed the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, attracting the attention of students from all over the world.

According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, before the first European medieval universities. Scholars sometimes refer to the University of Al Quaraouiyine (the name was given in 1963), founded as the Fatima al-Fihri mosque in 859, a university, although Jacques Verger writes that this was done for scholarly convenience. Some scholars believe that al-Qarawiyyin was founded and operated as a madrassa until World War II. They date the transformation of the al-Qarawiyyin madrasa into a university before its modern reorganization in 1963. As a result of these reforms, al-Qarawiyyin was officially renamed “University of Al Quaraouiyine” two years later.

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