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Wheat Field PNG Transparent Images

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Submitted by on Sep 12, 2020

Wheat is a plant that is widely cultivated for its seeds, a grain that is a staple food around the world. Many wheat species together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). Archaeological records show that wheat was first grown in the Fertile Crescent regions around 9600 BCE. Botanically speaking, a grain of wheat is a fruit called caryopsis.

Wheat is grown on a larger area than any other food crop (220.4 million ha, 2014). World trade in wheat is higher than all other combined crops. In 2017, global wheat production was 772 million tonnes, and production forecast for 2019 was 766 million tonnes, making it the second-largest grain production after corn. Since 1960, global production of wheat and other grains has tripled and is expected to grow even more in the mid-21st century. Global demand for wheat is growing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, the consumption of which is increasing as a result of global industrialization and Western nutrition.

Wheat is an essential source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, with a content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other large grains, but relatively low quality protein for providing essential amino acids. Wheat is a source of many nutrients and dietary fiber when consumed in whole grains.

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The cultivation, repeated harvesting and sowing of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic varieties, as mutant forms (“sport”) of wheat were chosen by farmers predominantly. Domestic wheat has larger grains and the seeds (inside the spikelets) remain attached to the hardened rickets ear during harvest. In wild varieties, the more fragile rickets allows the ear to easily break and scatter the spikelets. Technological advances in soil preparation and seeding during planting, the use of crop rotation and fertilization to improve plant growth, and advances in harvesting techniques have been combined to make wheat a viable crop. When the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, there were another significant increase in yields.

The yield of pure wheat per unit area increased as crop rotation methods are applied on perennial arable land and the use of fertilizers became widespread. Improved agricultural production recently included threshers, combine harvesters, tractor cultivators and seeders, as well as top varieties. A significant expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was cultivated in America and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries.

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