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Architecture PNG Transparent Images

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Submitted by on Aug 19, 2021

Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures. In the material form of buildings, architectural works are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

The practice, which began in the prehistoric era, has been used to express culture for civilizations on all seven continents. For this reason, architecture is considered to be a form of art. Texts on architecture have been written since ancient times. The earliest surviving text on architectural theory is the 1st century AD treatise De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius. A good building embodies firmitas, utilitas, and venustas (durability, utility, and beauty).

Centuries later, Leon Battista Alberti developed his ideas further, seeing beauty as an objective quality of buildings in their proportions. Giorgio Vasari wrote Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects and put forward the idea of style in the arts in the 16th century. In the 19th century, Louis Sullivan declared that “form follows function.” “Function” began to replace the classical “utility” and was understood to include practical and aesthetic, psychological, and cultural dimensions. The idea of sustainable architecture was introduced in the late 20th century.

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Architecture began as rural, oral vernacular architecture that developed from trial and error to successful replication. The ancient urban architecture was preoccupied with building religious structures and buildings symbolizing the political power of rulers until Greek and Roman architecture shifted focus to civic virtues. Indian and Chinese architecture influenced forms all over Asia, and Buddhist architecture, in particular, took diverse local flavors.

During the European Middle Ages, pan-European styles of Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals and abbeys emerged, while the Renaissance favored Classical forms implemented by architects known by name. Later, the roles of architects and engineers became separated. Modern architecture began after World War I as an avant-garde movement that sought to develop an entirely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes.

Emphasis was put on modern techniques, materials, and simplified geometric forms, paving the way for high-rise superstructures. Many architects became disillusioned with modernism which they perceived as ahistorical and anti-aesthetic, and postmodern and contemporary architecture developed.

Over the years, architectural construction has branched out to include everything from ship design to interior decorating.

Architecture can mean:

  • A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures.
  • The art and science of designing buildings and (some) nonbuilding structures.
  • The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures.
  • A unifying or coherent form or structure.
  • Knowledge of art, science, technology, and humanity.

The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture). The architect’s practice, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings or built environments.

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