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Submitted by on Aug 19, 2021

We are frequently astounded by how quickly the SMS notice arrives each time we make an ATM withdrawal; in some cases, we receive the text message warning before the machine dispenses my cash.

A short messaging service (SMS) was created in the early 1980s to construct the mobile network to communicate. Since its incorporation into GSM services, it has acquired international appeal. According to Portio Research, SMS traffic is anticipated to expand at a rate of 9.5 percent yearly across global markets, surpassing 5 trillion messages annually.

By 2013, SMS, the most widely used communications medium, would have 3.2 billion users. Person-to-person texting is still the most popular method of communication, but what happens between the time the message is typed and the time the recipient receives it?

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I’ll try to describe certain GSM network aspects involved in SMS delivery for the sake of clarity.

1. Mobile Station (MS) – Refers to a mobile network subscriber. MS1 denotes the sender of the text message, whereas MS2 denotes the recipient.

2. Short Message Service Centre (SMSC) – The SMSC is a software and hardware system that receives, processes, stores, and forwards text messages. The text message is held in the SMSC until the target device becomes accessible if there is a failure due to an unavailable receiving station (MS2).

3. Home Location Register (HLR) – The HLR is a database that permanently stores and manages subscriptions and service profiles. It sends the given subscriber’s routing information to SMSC. When a call or message is issued to a subscriber, not his home network, the HLR alerts the MSC, and the VLR is searched.

4. Mobile Switching Center (MSC) – The MSC manages the mobile system’s switching functions and calls to and from other telephone and data systems. Through the appropriate base station, the MSC will transmit the brief message to the specified mobile user.

5. Visitor Location Register (VLR) – This database stores temporary information about roaming subscribers from one HLR to another. The MSC needs this information to provide service to visiting subscribers.

Over a pathway known as a control channel, your mobile phone is continuously talking with the mobile network. The reason for this is that your phone changes cell every time you move. Therefore the mobile phone tower has to know which cell your phone is in. When there is no traffic, SMS leverages the signal routes used to control telephone traffic to transmit text messages.

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