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Submitted by on Aug 19, 2021

Science is a systematic endeavor that generates and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world (from the Latin term Scientia, which means “knowledge”).

The origins of science may be traced back to about 3000 to 1200 BCE in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine influenced and developed classical Greek natural philosophy, which sought to offer formal explanations for phenomena in the physical world based on natural causes.

Knowledge of Greek worldviews declined in Western Europe throughout the early Middle Ages (400 to 1000 CE) with the fall of the Western Roman Empire but was retained in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age.

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From the 10th to the 13th centuries, the recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe revived “natural philosophy,” which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution, which began in the 16th century and saw new ideas and discoveries departing from previous Greek conceptions and traditions.

The scientific method began to play a more significant part in knowledge generation in the 18th century. Still, many of the institutional and professional aspects of science and the change from “natural philosophy” to “natural science” did not emerge until the 19th century.

The natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in its broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which deal with symbols, However, because formal sciences do not rely on empirical data, there is debate about whether they are truly scientific. Applied sciences are disciplines that use current scientific knowledge for practical applications, such as engineering and medicine.

A curiosity drives scientists about the world, and a desire to solve issues progress science by studying. Scientific research is highly collaborative, with university and research organizations, government agencies, and businesses teams.

Because of the practical effect of their work, science policies have emerged that prioritize the creation of commercial items, weapons, health care, public infrastructure, and environmental protection to influence the scientific enterprise.

Science, in its broadest sense, existed in many ancient cultures before the modern period. Modern science is unique in its method and effective in its outcomes. Thus it has come to define what science is in the purest sense. Science was originally a term for a certain sort of knowledge rather than a term for studying such knowledge. It was, in particular, the sort of information that individuals may exchange and interact with one another.

For example, long before recorded history, information about the workings of natural objects was acquired, leading to the creation of sophisticated abstract cognition. Complex calendars, ways for rendering toxic plants palatable, major public works projects, such as those that harnessed the Yangtse floodplain with reservoirs, dams, and dikes, and structures like the Pyramids, all demonstrate this.

However, no clear difference was established between such information shared by all communities and other forms of collective knowledge, such as myths and legal systems. Prehistory knew about metallurgy, and the Vina culture was the first to create bronze-like alloys. Early experiments with heating and combining chemicals are said to have evolved into alchemy over time.

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