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Sound Horn PNG Transparent Images

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Submitted by on Jun 25, 2021

A loudspeaker or horn loudspeaker element that employs an acoustic horn to improve the overall efficiency of the driving element is known as a loudspeaker. A typical design includes a compression driver that generates sound waves by vibrating a tiny metal diaphragm with an electromagnet, a horn, and a flaring duct to transmit the sound waves to the open air. Another kind is a folded horn speaker, which consists of a woofer driver installed in a loudspeaker enclosure separated by internal partitions to produce a zigzag flaring duct that functions as a horn. The horn enhances the productivity of the connection between the speaker driver and the air. The horn functions as an “acoustic transformer,” matching the impedance of the relatively dense diaphragm material to the less thick air. As a result, a given driver’s acoustic output power increases.

The “throat” is the narrow section of the horn closest to the driver, while the “mouth” is the vast part furthest away from the driver. The shape and flare of the mouth influence the horn’s angular coverage (radiation pattern). The radiation pattern of horn speakers changes with frequency; high-frequency sound tends to be produced in narrow beams with poor off-axis performance. With Don Keele’s invention of the “constant directivity” horn in 1975, significant advancements have been achieved.

The primary benefit of horn loudspeakers is that they are more efficient; they can generally deliver three times (10 dB) more sound power from a given amplifier output than cone speakers. As a result, horns are commonly used in prominent venues such as theaters, auditoriums, and sports stadiums in public address systems, megaphones, and sound systems. They have the drawback of having a more uneven frequency response due to resonance peaks, and horns have a cutoff frequency beyond which their response goes down. (The wavelength corresponding to the radius of the horn mouth corresponds to the cutoff frequency.) Horn speakers must be pretty big and heavy to produce an acceptable bass response. Therefore they are more commonly employed for midrange and high frequencies. Horn speakers were the first practical loudspeakers introduced around the beginning of the twentieth century. The usage of horn speakers in high-fidelity audio systems has diminished in recent decades due to the advent of cone loudspeakers with a flatter frequency response and the availability of affordable amplifier power.

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Huge pressure fluctuations with a small displacement area are converted to low-pressure changes with a large displacement area by an acoustic horn and vice versa. It accomplishes this by gradually increasing the horn’s cross-sectional area, which is frequently exponential. The throat’s narrow cross-sectional area inhibits airflow, resulting in a high acoustic impedance for the driver. This allows the driver to build up a lot of pressure for a small amount of displacement. As a result, sound waves reaching the throat have high pressure but a small displacement. The horn’s tapering form allows sound waves to progressively decompress and expand in displacement until they reach the mouth, where they are low in pressure but high in exile.

A contemporary horn functions in the same way, with an electrically powered dynamic or piezoelectric loudspeaker replacing the mechanically stimulated diaphragm.

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