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Voltage Stabilizer PNG Transparent Images

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Submitted by on Nov 29, 2021

A voltage regulator is a system that maintains a steady voltage automatically. Negative feedback or a basic feed-forward design can be used in a voltage regulator. An electromechanical mechanism or electrical components might be used. It may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages, depending on the design.

Electronic voltage regulators are used to regulate the DC voltages utilized by the CPU and other components in devices such as computer power supply. Voltage regulators govern the output of generator plants in automotive alternators and central power plants. Voltage regulators can be installed at a substation or along distribution lines in an electric power distribution system to ensure that all customers get constant voltage regardless of how much power is consumed from the line.

A resistor in series with a diode may be used to make a basic voltage/current regulator (or series of diodes). The voltage across the diode changes only minimally owing to changes in current drawn or changes in the input due to the logarithmic nature of diode V-I curves. This design may be adequate when precise voltage control and efficiency are not required.

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This type of voltage regulator is only suited for low voltage controlled output due to the modest forward voltage of a diode. A zener diode or a series of zener diodes can be used when a greater voltage output is required. The fixed reverse voltage of a zener diode, which can be extremely high, is used by zener diode regulators.

The actual output voltage of a feedback voltage regulator is compared to a preset reference value. Any difference is magnified and utilized to adjust the regulation element so that the voltage error is minimized. This creates a negative feedback control loop, in which raising the open-loop gain improves regulation precision but decreases stability.

There will be a trade-off between stability and the speed with which changes are responded to. If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to lower input voltage or higher load current), the regulation element is commanded to produce a higher output voltage up to a point”by dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series and buck switching regulators) or drawing input current for longer periods (boost-type switching regulators).

If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to lower input voltage or higher load current), the regulation element is commanded to produce a higher output voltage up to a point”by dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series and buck switching regulators) or drawing input current for longer periods (boost-type switching regulators).

Many regulators, on the other hand, contain over-current protection, which means that if the output current is too high, they will cease sourcing current (or limit it in some manner), and some regulators may also shut down if the input voltage is outside a certain range (see also: crowbar circuits).

Voltage regulation is simply performed with electromechanical regulators by coiling the sensing wire into an electromagnet. The current’s magnetic field draws a moving ferrous core that is kept back by spring tension or gravity attraction. As the voltage rises, the current rises as well, intensifying the magnetic field created by the coil and drawing the core closer to it.

A mechanical power switch is physically attached to the magnet, which opens when the magnet travels into the field. As the voltage drops, the current drops as well, reducing spring tension or the core’s weight and forcing it to retract. This shuts the switch and restores power to the system.

The motion of the solenoid core can be used to move a selector switch across a range of resistances or transformer windings to gradually step the output voltage up or down, or to rotate the position of a moving-coil AC regulator if the mechanical regulator design is sensitive to small voltage fluctuations.

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