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Xerox Machine PNG Transparent Images

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Submitted by on Sep 22, 2021

A photocopier is a machine that swiftly and inexpensively copies papers and other visual images onto paper or plastic film. Xerography is a dry technique that employs electrostatic charges on a light-sensitive photoreceptor to attract and then transfer toner particles (a powder) onto paper in the shape of an image in most current photocopiers. Heat, pressure, or a combination of both are used to fuse the toner to the paper. Other technologies, such as inkjet, can be used by copiers, but xerography is the industry standard for office copying.

Xerox developed commercial xerographic office photocopying in 1959, eventually replacing Verifax, Photostat, carbon paper, mimeograph machines, and other duplicating equipment.

In the commercial, education, and government sectors, photocopying is frequently utilized. Photocopiers are still extensively used in 2015, despite forecasts that they will become obsolete as information workers expand their usage of digital document production, storage, and distribution and depend less on delivering real bits of paper. During the 1980s, several high-end machines began to converge towards what became known as a multi-function printer: a device that integrated the functions of a photocopier, fax machine, scanner, and computer network-connected printer. During the 1990s, low-cost machines that can copy and print in color dominated the home-office market as their costs gradually dropped. High-end color photocopiers that can handle high-volume printing and large-format printing are still a pricey alternative reserved for print and design businesses.

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Chester Carlson, the creator of photocopying, was a patent attorney who also worked as a researcher and inventor on the side. His employment at the New York Patent Office required him to make many copies of essential documents. This was a difficult and time-consuming process for Carlson, who was arthritic. He was inspired to explore with photo conductivity as a result of this. Carlson experimented with “electrophotography” in his kitchen and sought for a patent for the method in 1938. He used a sulfur-coated zinc plate to make the first photocopy.

The words “10-22-38 Astoria” were written on a microscope slide, which was then put on top of additional sulfur and exposed to strong light. A mirror image of the text remained when the slide was withdrawn. Carlson attempted to market his idea to a few firms but was unsuccessful because the process was still in its infancy. People did not perceive the necessity for an electronic machine at the time because multiple copies were most often created at the site of document generation using carbon paper or manual duplicating machines. Almost 20 firms turned down Carlson between 1939 and 1944, including IBM and General Electric, both of whom did not feel there was a large demand for copiers.

Carlson was hired by the Battelle Memorial Institute, a non-profit institution in Columbus, Ohio, to perfect his novel technique in 1944. The institute experimented over the following five years to enhance the electrophotography technique. In 1947, Battelle received a request from Haloid Corporation (a tiny New York-based maker and marketer of photographic paper) to develop and commercialize a copying machine based on this technique.

Haloid thought the term “electrophotography” was overly complex and lacked recall value. Haloid and Carlson altered the method’s name to “xerography” after consulting a professor of ancient language at Ohio State University. “Xerography” is derived from Greek terms that mean “dry writing.” Haloid dubs the new copying machines “Xerox Machines” and the term “Xerox” was trademarked in 1948. Eventually, Haloid was renamed Xerox Corporation.

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