Augustus PNG Transparent Images

Submitted by on Nov 11, 2022

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The first Roman emperor, Caesar Augustus, better known as Octavian, ruled from 27 BC until his passing on August 19, AD. He was born on September 23, 63 BC, and died on August 19, AD. Augustus is regarded as one of the greatest leaders in human history and is most known for founding the Roman Principate, the first stage of the Roman Empire. The Pax Romana or Pax Augusta, a period of imperial peace, and an imperial worship were both established under the rule of Augustus. Despite ongoing wars of imperial expansion on the empire’s borders and the year-long civil war known as the “Year of the Four Emperors” over the imperial succession, the Roman world experienced relatively little major warfare for more than two centuries.

He was born into an established and affluent equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and went by the name Gaius Octavius. After the murder of his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC, Octavius was listed in the latter’s testament as his adopted son and successor; as a result, he received Caesar’s name, inheritance, and the allegiance of his legions. To stop Caesar’s assassins, he established the Second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus. The Triumvirate split the Roman Republic among themselves after winning the Battle of Philippi (42 BC), and they exercised de facto rule. The conflicting goals of the Triumvirate’s members ultimately led to Lepidus’ exile in 36 BC and Antony’s defeat by Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.


After the Second Triumvirate fell, Augustus restored the appearance of a free republic with the Roman Senate, executive magistrates, and legislative assemblies holding the reins of power. Despite this, he maintained his autocratic rule by having the Senate grant him lifetime tenure as commander-in-chief, tribune, and censor. Similar contradiction may be observed in his chosen names, where he declared himself Princeps Civitatis (First Citizen) while also adopting the old term augustus, which suggests a rejection of monarchical titles.

While completing the conquest of Hispania and annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia as well as increasing his empire’s holdings in Africa, Augustus suffered a serious defeat in Germania. Beyond the borders, he protected the empire with a buffer zone of client nations and reached a diplomatic agreement with the Parthian Empire. During his rule, he overhauled Rome’s taxation system, erected official courier networks, networks of roads, a standing army, the Praetorian Guard, and official police and fire protection for Rome. He also extensively renovated the city. At the age of 75, Augustus passed away in AD 14 from likely natural causes. His wife Livia allegedly poisoned him, according to persistent stories that have been slightly corroborated by deaths within the imperial family. Tiberius, Livia’s son and the previous spouse of Augustus’ sole biological daughter Julia, succeeded him as emperor.

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